The article explores the skillful and laborious work that was necessary to make the supposedly universal computer usable locally. To achieve this, it explores the role of home computer periodicals in Greece, particularly the magazine Pixel.
The article reconstructs the history of underground software transfer in the second half of the 1980s between the core countries of the home computer software industry and its ‘peripheries’ both in the Eastern Bloc and in the ‘Global South’, and the geographical expansion of the cracking scene in this process.
The history of Bulletin Board Systems (BBS) in Finland started in 1982. This article provides a case study, focusing on the general history of the Finnish BBS culture.
This contribution focuses on the hacker cultures in the FRG and GDR in the 1980s. It calls for more comparative studies and shows that the narrative of technical backwardness of the Eastern Bloc does not cover the whole history of its computerization of the private sphere.
The story about the divergence of the cracker scene and the demoscene has been canonized over the years. In this article, Markku Reunanen takes a fresh look at the story and offers new perspective to the events of the late 1980s and the early 1990s.